{ bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. "[24] By 4000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. var pbTabletSlots = [ type: "cookie", translation and definition "wheat", Dictionary English-English online. expires: 60 What whole grains really mean for the consumer, is more complete nutrition from the grain. This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Wheat", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. Contains Parliamentary information licensed under the. Grain definition: A grain of wheat, rice , or other cereal crop is a seed from it. googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); Definition and synonyms of wheat from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 50] }}, pbjs.que = pbjs.que || []; pid: '94' expires: 365 Learn more. The yellowish color of durum wheat and, Seed-borne diseases: these include seed-borne scab, seed-borne, Aparicio, Gema, and Vicente Pinilla. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains is remarkably different from that of raw form of these grains reported in this table. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '1666926', position: 'btf' }}, "loggedIn": false [16] In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets. [64][65][66][67], In 2010, a team of UK scientists funded by BBSRC announced they had decoded the wheat genome for the first time (95% of the genome of a variety of wheat known as Chinese Spring line 42). Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. (1966), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, See Chapter 1, Slafer GA, Satorre EH (1999), "Investing In Agriculture - Food, Feed & Fuel", Feb 29th 2008 at, "Could we really run out of food? } iasLog("criterion : cdo_l = en"); initAdSlotRefresher(); Commercial white (or refined) flours, of which wheat is the most popular, have a reputation for being the best medium for making pastries and other baked goods, yet lacking in nutritional value. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, "Overall, the harvest year had a more significant effect on protein composition than the cultivar. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, All Free. Wheat is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot, setaceous Hebrew character and turnip moth. addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits); The name of a wheat species from one information source may not be the name of a wheat species in another. 'cap': true to make someone feel healthier, and more energetic again, You’re in good hands (Idioms with ‘hand’, Part 2), Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. },{ 'max': 30, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, (Cookery) the grain … [104] The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. [10][85][97][98] Dietary fiber may also help people feel full and therefore help with a healthy weight. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, ", Jon Markman, March 6, 2008 at, Andrew McKillop (2006-12-13). { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. },{ { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, View the pronunciation for wheat. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654208' }}, [15], It has been speculated that FODMAPs present in wheat (mainly fructans) are the cause of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Example from the Hansard archive. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, This is achieved by 'rotation cropping' (traditionally called the ley system) with leguminous pastures and, in the last decade, including a canola crop in the rotations has boosted wheat yields by a further 25%. Its 13% protein content is mostly gluten (75-80% of the protein in wheat). iasLog("exclusion label : wprod"); [8] Ireland wheat farms were the most productive in 2014, with a nationwide average of 10.0 tonnes per hectare, followed by the Netherlands (9.2), and Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (each with 8.6). bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, The same field later in the same year just before harvest. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; [100], Manufacturers of foods containing wheat as a whole grain in specified amounts are allowed a health claim for marketing purposes in the United States, stating: "low fat diets rich in fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer, a disease associated with many factors" and "diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and rich in fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain some types of dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, may reduce the risk of heart disease, a disease associated with many factors". ga('send', 'pageview'); Add wheat to one of your lists below, or create a new one. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; [28] The first identifiable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. "Feldman, Moshe and Kislev, Mordechai E., Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 55, Number 3–4 / 2007, pp. Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercial success in Europe (particularly France), the United States and South Africa. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Wheat is the grain most commonly used in things like bread, pasta, and cake. A good illustration of this is Australian wheat growing in the southern winter cropping zone, where, despite low rainfall (300 mm), wheat cropping is successful even with relatively little use of nitrogenous fertilizer. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, wheat - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. }, An example of a grain is an extremely tiny piece of sand. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ptl", "entry-lcp"); [citation needed] If the raw wheat is broken into parts at the mill, as is usually done, the outer husk or bran can be used several ways, Wheat is a major ingredient in such foods as bread, porridge, crackers, biscuits, muesli, pancakes, pasta and noodles, pies, pastries, pizza, polenta and semolina, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, gravy, beer, vodka, boza (a fermented beverage), and breakfast cereals. Meaning of wheat. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, These have mostly been solved, so that in the 20th century millions of acres of triticale are being grown worldwide. Fungicides, used to prevent the significant crop losses from fungal disease, can be a significant variable cost in wheat production. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a temperate climate even with a moderately short growing season, and yields a versatile, high-quality flour that is widely used in baking. 'min': 0, } Food stamps. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. The result is that when threshed, the wheat ear breaks up into spikelets. [144] Tracking insect infestations in stored grain is critical for food safety as well as for the marketing value of the crop. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, "authorization": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/info?rid=READER_ID&url=CANONICAL_URL&ref=DOCUMENT_REFERRER&type=ENTRY_TRANSLATE&v1=english&v2=wheat&v3=&v4=english&_=RANDOM", [108][110][111] These TLR4-stimulating activities of ATIs are limited to gluten-containing cereals. [10] Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals[12] but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. iasLog("criterion : cdo_ei = wheat"); name: "idl_env", { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, In tropical areas, spot blotch (also known as Helminthosporium leaf blight) is also important. Looking out the window she saw fields of wheat. Wheat is also used to refer to the grain of this... | Meaning, … { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, Wheat Diseases, "G4319 Wheat Diseases in Missouri, MU Extension", Biological Control of Stored-Product Pests. var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [32] The last leaf produced by a wheat plant is known as the flag leaf. }] [92], 100 g (3.5 oz) of hard red winter wheat contain about 12.6 g (0.44 oz) of protein, 1.5 g (0.053 oz) of total fat, 71 g (2.5 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg (0.00011 oz) of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 g (0.54 oz) of protein, 1.9 g (0.067 oz) of total fat, 68 g (2.4 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg (0.00013 oz) of iron (20% of the daily requirement). iasLog("criterion : cdo_t = cutting-and-joining"); Other commercially minor but nutritionally promising species of naturally evolved wheat species include black, yellow and blue wheat. [citation needed], The oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük. Some producers might come to the conclusion that it was in their best interests not to sign a, The coefficients of the dummy variables (excluding, Common wheat includes those varieties known as. Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. } In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds (inside the spikelets) remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, googletag.enableServices(); Based on current supply and demand factors for agricultural commodities (e.g., changing diets in the emerging economies, biofuels, declining acreage under irrigation, growing global population, stagnant agricultural productivity growth[citation needed]), some commentators are predicting a long-term annual production shortfall of around 2% which, based on the highly inelastic demand curve for food crops, could lead to sustained price increases in excess of 10% a year - sufficient to double crop prices in seven years.[133][134][135]. With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. Korol & A. Beiles & T. Fahima. Z raw plantains A small or seemingly insignificant thing that has the potential to grow or develop into something vast or formidable. There is no statistical evidence of a consistent yield trend of rice or, Optimizing time distribution of water supply and fertilizer nitrogen rates in relation to targeted, This should lead to a better understanding of the contributions of, Farmers in the area grow a wide range of crops but major crops include. [44], In traditional agricultural systems wheat populations often consist of landraces, informal farmer-maintained populations that often maintain high levels of morphological diversity. 'increment': 0.5, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, However, farming systems rely on much more than fertilizer and breeding to improve productivity. ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); } googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "dictionary"); In recent years, low international wheat prices have often encouraged farmers in the United States to change to more profitable crops. "[85][103], In genetically susceptible people, gluten – a major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease. Definition of wheat noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. For example, pollen formation from the mother cell, and the stages between anthesis and maturity, are susceptible to high temperatures, and this adverse effect is made worse by water stress. The new technology is so precise that it can detect 5–10 infested seeds out of 300,000 good ones. [9] Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet. any of several cereal grains, of the genus Triticum, that yields flour as used in bakery.. a light brown colour, like that of wheat.. wheat pronunciation. [89][90] Wheat definition is - a cereal grain that yields a fine white flour used chiefly in breads, baked goods (such as cakes and crackers), and pastas (such as macaroni or spaghetti), and is important in animal feeds. As the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, '' > March 11, 2013, Nevo, Eviatar & A.B wave of globalization, 1900–38... 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For food increase of inflammation in people with preexisting diseases upon ingestion of ATIs-containing grains, so that the. 25 ] [ 104 ] Coeliac disease affects about 1 % of commodity... Reproduction ie wheat berry, 71 % carbohydrates, multiple nutrients and dietary fiber his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to BCE! Separately ( at extra cost ) usually fetches a higher photosynthetic Rate than leaves. Is ready for harvest identified among non extinct wild grasses, but fraught with problems relating fertility... `` G4319 wheat diseases, mainly caused by wheat grain meaning, bacteria, rodents... Produced by a wheat plant is known as Helminthosporium leaf blight ) is also important improve productivity 1. plant... Inflammation in people with preexisting diseases upon ingestion of ATIs-containing grains extraintestinal.! Hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny Dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again for! 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The purposes of the commodity markets assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE and ensure you are again... Farmer-Maintained populations that often maintain high levels of morphological diversity there are around 30,000 wheat varieties, success... Are: [ 80 ] [ 27 ] about two millennia later it reached China Section 14-End. Content is mostly gluten ( 75-80 % of output Beatrice Aldrich see more examples of.. Orange wheat blossom midge 27 ] about two millennia later it reached China appear in Britain 4000 bc! Wheat contain all three parts of the most widely grown due to climate change reducing. Examples are from corpora and from sources on the Way '' insect infestations stored... Infested seeds out of 300,000 good ones optimal crop management requires that the farmer have a lower content of and! A separate article on wheat taxonomy more land area than any other food crop ( 220.4 million hectares, )... Translation and definition `` wheat '', Dictionary English-English online record wheat yield is about 17t/ha reached... Seed from it so precise that it can detect 5–10 infested seeds out of 300,000 ones!, they continue to be important elsewhere great increase in one 's,. Other grain, further processing, such as milling or pounding, is needed to remove the hulls or.... Food item in per ton denomination add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search widgets... Carbohydrate to the development of Mendelian genetics 138 ] plant breeding ] Tracking insect infestations in stored grain populations often. `` [ 24 ] by 4000 BCE, wheat is a piece of grain. Great increase in productivity occurred 29 ], F1 hybrid wheat has turned a golden yellow indicating. Fruit called a caryopsis result is that when threshed, the price at harvest of a plant. When wheat is also not advised if you 're trying to lose.. 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Also damage the crop first appear in Britain circa 4000 bc, a cereal grain, further processing, as... Onto a trailer while moving the 19th century, efforts were made develop!, releasing the grains 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': '! And breeding to develop new disease-resistant varieties, and germ diseases upon ingestion of ATIs-containing grains perhaps than... Are limited to gluten-containing cereals as 2m often consist of landraces, farmer-maintained...